The Covenant of Grace begins in its seminal form in Genesis 3:15 but is revealed more fully in the Abrahamic Covenant. Studying the Abrahamic Covenant continues to show its relevance and importance throughout Scripture because it touches on everything from worship, sacraments, election, atonement, and much more. The key aspect I want to focus on in this post is that the Abrahamic Covenant demonstrates continuity and the preservation of the Gospel throughout Scripture.
Living in the New Covenant we tend to focus on the New Testament but there is a greatly missed blessing in neglecting the Old Testament. What happens is the focus on the discontinuity or the fragmenting of Scripture, and some have even seen different gospels or worse, a different God in the Old Testament than in the New. When we recover a sense of the continuity, however, we will be enabled to interpret the redemptive story in a more coherent manner. Briefly touching on the sense of the New Covenant as preeminently spoken of in Jeremiah 31 we read that the New Covenant makes the Old Covenant obsolete. The question we ask is “What is that Old Covenant? Is it the covenant with Abraham, Moses, or David?” The text answers the question for us when it reads in Jer. 31:32 “ not like the covenant that I made with their fathers on the day when I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, my covenant that they broke,” The covenant that the New Covenant fulfills is not Abraham but Moses.
Then how are we to view to Abrahamic Covenant in light of the New Covenant? I have generally stated that the New Covenant is a new administration of the Abrahamic Covenant. The covenant with Moses was initiated by God and ended with Jesus when he initiated the New Covenant. So that the blessings and promises of the Abrahamic Covenant “He would be our God” would be secured in the faithfulness of Christ. It is the promise repeated to Isaac, Jacob and finally spoken of in the Revelation of John chapter 21:7. The eschatological goal is that God would have a glorified community in a new creation communing with Him for eternity.
It is the promise given to those who are children of Abraham which include the Christian. This is why Galatians says we who have faith are sons of Abraham (Gal 3:7) that if we are Christ’s then we are Abraham’s offspring, “heirs according to the promise”. Thus Christians can say they have Abraham as their father because Scripture says it.
This is significant also because it demonstrates that just as there has always been one God, and one people of God, there has also been one Gospel not many. When Paul speaks in Galatians that anyone who preaches a different Gospel is accused, (Gal 2:8) it wasn’t a new Gospel he was defending but the Gospel that was always known to them. So that he could say Jews know that a person is not justified by works but by faith in Jesus (Gal 2:16). Salvation by faith was not a novelty but the same Gospel preached through Scripture. So that before the New Testament was written salvation was sufficiently brought through the Law and Prophets. That is why Jesus is able to say in the account of the Rich Man and Lazarus (Lk 16:19-31) that Moses and the Prophets were enough for someone to read and know the Gospel.
Hab. 2:4 “Behold, his soul is puffed up; it is not upright within him,
but the righteous shall live by his faith.